Subtle degrees by Rumi

Subtle degrees
of domination and servitude
are what you know as love

but love is different
it arrives complete
just there
like the moon in the window

like the sun
of neither east nor west
nor of anyplace

when that sun arrives
east and west arrive

desire only that
of which you have no hope
seek only that
of which you have no clue

love is the sea of not-being
and there intellect drowns

this is not the Oxus River
or some little creek
this is the shoreless sea;
here swimming ends
always in drowning

a journey to the sea
is horses and fodder
and contrivance
but at land’s end
the footsteps vanish

you lift up your robe
so as not to wet the hem;
come! drown in this sea
a thousand times

the moon passes over the
ocean of non-being

droplets of spray tear loose
and fall back
on the cresting waves

a million galaxies
are a little scum
on that shoreless sea

It is spiritual poverty, not material lack, that lies at the core of all human suffering.

Millions of people never analyze themselves. Mentally they are mechanical products of the factory of their environment, preoccupied with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, working and sleeping, and going here and there to be entertained. They don’t know what or why they are seeking, nor why they never realize complete happiness and lasting satisfaction. By evading self-analysis, people go on being conditioned robots.

Paramahansa Yogananda

If we discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable by everyone, not just by a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason – for then we should know the mind of God.

Stephen Hawking

Connection between mind and brain

So once we go into the subatomic level we actually see that the atom is not really an atom.

You know particles change according to their waves and they are particles only when you actually look at them. So it is considered the observer effect.

And it is really interesting because it means that we have these waves of energy and as we make a choice we create reality – which we do – so as you think, feel and choose you change your brain.

Think, feel and choose those three things always go together. Always thinking means you’re always feeling. Thinking and feeling means you’re always choosing.

It’s happening at like 400 billion actions per second constantly so we’re processing this world around us through this think-feel-choose and then we build thoughts so there is this structural consequence. So thought is actually a physical response of the think, feel, choose. And quantum physics is kind of helping us understand that. But quantum physics is real and is easy to understand with classical physics. So classical (physical world) and quantum (the sort of non-physical world) work together.

Caroline Leaf, Neuroscientist

The nature of the peaceful mind

The following are the attributes of the peaceful mind:

  1. Does not crave for fame and recognition
  2. Does not interfere with the world till needed or requested
  3. Does not attempt to create an environment of selfishness
  4. Does not idle
  5. Does not desire to work for more than what is needed
  6. Does not wander
  7. Does not become jealous
  8. Does not drive actions which can be regretted later
  9. Does not fail to be grateful
  10. Does not grieve over what cannot be changed
  11. Does not hold grudges
  12. Does not retain unpleasant memories

Neti, neti. Not so, not so.

Hormones for health and happiness

Happiness is the highest form of health. Four hormones determine the perception of happiness. A simple mnemonic to remember them is DOSE.

D-Dopamine; O-Oxytocin; S-Seratonin; E-Endorphins

Dopamine – The reward chemical for motivation. It can be improved by:
* Have a shower
* Eat healthy food
* Sleep well

Oxytocin – The love chemical. It can be improved by:
* Hug loved ones
* Play with kids
* Play with pets
* Be thankful and forgiving

Seratonin – The mood stabilizing chemical.  It can be improved by:
* Spend time with nature
* Do breathing exercises
* Get sunlight

Endorphins-The pain killer and stress relief chemicals.  They can be improved by:
* Walk and stretch
* Smile and laugh often
* Listen to music

The above is for information and does not constitute medical advice.

It is consciousness over mind and matter

Life is an experience is created by the interaction of the tangible energy and the intangible energy.

The tangible external world that provides the experience is different from the intangible internal consciousness within a life form that experiences.

Even the intangible, is differentiated into pure consciousness that is filled with sat-chit-ananda and other semi-tangible processes such as the mind, thoughts, memory and so on.

Every experience a life form has, rests on its own consciousness. Without one’s own consciousness, all the complexity of constructs of the universe and mind have no meaning. Thus, when examines one’s own life, consciousness is treated as real and the world outside as unreal.

The tangible world outside and the semi-tangible mind are constantly changing. But the consciousness inside is regarded as an unchanging observer. No matter what a human acquires or loses in the tangible world, the ability of the consciousness to experience is not altered. But when the conscious soul leaves the body, life is said to have ended and the body can be disposed of.

Because life experience is a two part process, which needs both consciousness and matter, the question of which is more important has had different answers.

People such as scientists and atheists, who take the side of tangible matter argue that the semi-tangibles and intangible somehow arises from the tangible. However, no such proofs exists of consciousness arising from matter. Stones, for example do not come alive.

People such as theists and spiritualists, take the side of intangible and argue that the changing nature of semi-tangibles and tangible universe makes them unsuited for building the foundation of life upon it. Therefore, the eternal unchanging consciousness is the only suitable foundation of life.

So the question “Mind over matter or Matter over mind?” has an unexpected answer because both the mind and matter are some what tangible and constantly changing. The answer really should be “It is consciousness over mind and matter”.

Uncontrolled mind

The mind is uncontrolled when it makes plans to enjoy the pleasures of the senses.

BG 2.62

While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.

BG 2.63

From anger, complete delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost one falls down again into the material pool.

Notes on Fibonacci series and Golden ratio

  1. Early known roots of Fibonacci series lie in Pingala (200 BC)
  2. Fibonacci numbers are attributed to Leonardo Bonacci of Pisa, Italy and are a number sequence where the previous two numbers are added to create the next number in the sequence; such as 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89 and so on. This number sequence can be seen throughout nature as in the arrangements of seed spirals in a sunflower and the number of petals in many flowers.
  3. The ratio between two adjacent values approaches the Divine Proportion, or Golden Ratio known as Phi (pronounced fee) being the ratio of 1.618 to 1. This ratio also exists throughout nature. It can be seen in the increasing radii of the chambered nautilus and in the proportions of the human body.
  4. More significantly both Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio can be found in the DNA of every cell in our bodies. Jean-Claude Perez discovered a DNA supracode controlling the self-organization of the nucleotide bases Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine (T,C,A,G), which make up the steps in the double helix ladder of DNA. He discovered if you consider 144 contiguous nucleobases it results from 55 T bases and 89 C A G bases, all Fibonacci numbers. These resonances extend to the ratios of the Atomic Weights of the Bio-Atoms of Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Hydrogen that create the nucleotide bases of T C A G, such that the ratios of atomic weights in strands considered to be ‘junk DNA’, that is DNA which could not be translated into genetic information or related to known protein synthesis, were equal to Phi, the Golden Ration of 1.618. Thus, even within the basic building blocks of our bodies Fibonacci number sequences and Phi exists at a primal level. These and other personal insights led to understanding the fundamental frequency from which all subsequent therapeutic frequencies would be derived must be based upon a natural Fibonacci number.

Cost of the human body based on constituents

If the human body is broken down into its constituent elements and the cost of the constituents estimated based on 2020 trading rates, the average cost works out to be US$ 0.3822 per kg.

Workings are given below:

NoElementWeight of each element in kgPrice of elementCost breakup in $ totaling% Cost of each element
  (Based on 70 kg human)($/kg)26.78181 


  1. If the water content of the body is costed at the water supply rate, instead of as hydrogen and oxygen, the average cost would drop.
  2. Of the elements whose role in human body functioning is not understood, Rubidium is the largest quantity.
  3. Costliest element found in the human body is Ceasium which is US$ 61,800 /kg.

The objective of this post is to gain an accurate understanding of the average composition of the human body and reflect the numbers accurately. So, the post is open for discussion and comments.

Glitches not explained in reality

  1. Speed of light cannot be exceeded. It is a cosmic limit. It is independent of the speed of the source of light.
  2. Wave/Particle duality – Even matter behaves like a wave
  3. Law of conservation of energy. If everything is energy, nothing can truly ever be created. Energy in is
  4. Quantum entanglement. It is independent of distance. Particles communicate instantly. Reality is non-local, distance is an illusion.
  5. Singularity – center of a black hole. All physical laws break down.
  6. Big bang originated at a singularity.

How insane are these? Glitches are only strange if reality is viewed as material.

The nature of reality:

  • Mathematical reality
  • Mind based, mental existence
  • Shared experience, collective consciousness
  • Based on code
  • Not a simulation

Big-bang explanation – Mental energy being transformed into matter

Energy is in waves. Matter created from energy retains attributes of a wave.

Like in a bike game on a PC, the perception of distance is an illusion. Distance is a perception in the mind which also acts as a singularity.

Everything can happen in the background by coding.

Light is made of Bosons, which do not take up space. Bosons do not have a size because they do not occupy space. Size of a boson is not measurable.

Mind and thoughts are like Bosons.

Light is mind. Light and mind are the foundations of existence.

Philosopher Dr. Thomas Stark said

The singularity that precedes the big band is a singularity of pure light.

Pure light = pure mathematics = pure mind

Light, ontologically, is what unextended mathematics actually is. The big bang is a light event, a mental event. In particular, the big band involves the breaking of perfect symmetry of light. “Matter” is broken light…asymmetric light, recalcitrant, sluggish thought.

This reality is created by slow sluggish thought, frozen light.

Physicist David Baum said:

The universe consists of frozen light and this ocean of energy could be thought of as an ocean of light.

What all these show (singularity, properties of light, law of conservation of energy, quantum entanglement ) is that everything is connected, all is mind, all is eternal.

We can never die. Physical bodies may perish.

What we truly beings of the mind. The fundamental eternal substance of existence is the mind -it can never be destroyed.

The mind is in a spiraling trajectory of evolution.

Mind is the fundamental eternal substance that can never be destroyed.

When existence is forced into a paradigm of materialism (everything is physical), we are faced with all these paradoxes and inconsistencies and errors.


Above notes were extracted from a video by Morgue.


Notes to self: Matter is “putrid” energy. “Putrefaction” of energy and conversion to matter is influenced by collective consciousness. Thus, observer influences the matter. Matter retains the attributes of energy to enable reconversion. After released by the observer’s consciousness, the matter returns to energy.

“We work hard to disown the parts of our lives that were painful, difficult, or sad. But just as we can’t rip chapters out of a book and expect the story to still make sense, so we cannot rip chapters out of our past and expect our lives to still make sense. Keep every chapter of your life intact, and keep on turning the pages. Sooner or later you’ll understand why every scene, every chapter was needed.”

Sandra Kring

Indirajaal – Indira’s net

“Far away in the heavenly abode of the great god Indra, there is a wonderful net which has been hung by some cunning artificer in such a manner that it stretches out indefinitely in all directions. In accordance with the extravagant tastes of deities, the artificer has hung a single glittering jewel at the net’s every node, and since the net itself is infinite in dimension, the jewels are infinite in number. There hang the jewels, glittering like stars of the first magnitude, a wonderful sight to behold. If we now arbitrarily select one of these jewels for inspection and look closely at it, we will discover that in its polished surface there are reflected all the other jewels in the net, infinite in number. Not only that, but each of the jewels reflected in this one jewel is also reflecting all the other jewels, so that the process of reflection is infinite. The Hua’yen school [of Buddhism] has been fond of this image, mentioned many times in its literature, because it symbolizes a cosmos in which there is an infinitely repeated interrelationship among all the members of the cosmos. This relationship is said to be one of simultaneous mutual identity and mututal intercausality.”

~ Francis H. Cook, Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra


Also see: Atharva Veda 8.8.8


Some three thousand years ago or more, this ancient numinous
image of the Cosmos was first expressed in the sacred Indian text of the
Atharvaveda and termed Indra’s net; it was the means by which the Vedic
deity Indra, god of the heavens, created the appearance of the whole
world. Now, its revelation of integral reality and self-reflection at all
scales of existence is being rediscovered and restated in a less poetic but
equally majestic and scientifically based language.

Jude Currivan, The Cosmic Hologram


There are several aspects of Indra’s Net, that signify it as a crystal clear allegory of reality:

  1. The Holographic Nature of the Universe

Long before the existence of the hologram, the jeweled net is an excellent description of the special characteristic of holograms: that every point of the hologram contains information regarding all other points. This reflective nature of the jewels is an obvious reference to this.

This kind of analogy has been suggested by science as a theory for an essential characteristic of the cosmos, as well as as the functioning of the human brain, as beautifully described inThe Holograpic Universe by Michael Talbot.

  1. The Interconnectedness of All Thingss

When any jewel in the net is touched, all other jewels in the node are affected. This speaks to the hidden interconnectedness and interdependency of everything and everyone in the universe, and has an indirect reference to the concept of “Dependent Origination” in Buddhism. Additionally, Indra’s Net is a definitive ancient correlate of Bell’s Theorum, or the theory of non-local causes.

  1. Lack of a substantive self

Each node, representing an individual, simply reflects the qualities of all other nodes, inferring the notion of ‘not-self’ or a lack of a solid and real inherent self, as seen in the Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism and Buddhism in general.

  1. Non-locality

Indra’s Net shoots holes in the assumption or imputation of a solid and fixed universe ‘out there’. The capacity of one jewel to reflect the light of another jewel from the other edge of infinity is something that is difficult for the linear mind, rational mind to comprehend. The fact that all nodes are simply reflections indicates that there is no particular single source point from where it all arises.

  1. Innate Wisdom

The ability to reflect the entirety of all light in the universe attests to the inherent transcendant wisdom that is at the core of all nodes, representing all sentient beings, and to the inherent Buddha Nature.

  1. Illusion or Maya

The fact that all nodes are simply a reflection of all others implies the illusory nature of all appearances. Appearances are thus not reality but a reflection of reality.

  1. Universal Creativity

A familiar concept in various high dharmas is one of an impersonal creative intelligence that springs forth into reality through the instruments of all living beings.

  1. The Mirror-like Nature of Mind

The capacity to reflect all things attests to the mind being a mirror of reality, not its basis. This is a common thesis among various schools and religions.



“There is one only defect in forgiving persons, and not another; that defect is that people take a forgiving person to be weak. That defect, however, should not be taken into consideration, for forgiveness is a great power. Forgiveness is a virtue of the weak, and an ornament of the strong. Forgiveness subdues all in this world; what is there that forgiveness cannot achieve? What can a wicked person do unto him who carries the saber of forgiveness in his hand? Fire falling on a grassless ground is extinguished of itself. And unforgiving individual defiles himself with many enormities. Righteousness is the one highest good, and forgiveness is the one supreme peace; knowledge is one supreme contentment; and benevolence, one sole happiness.”

Vidura speaking in Udyoga Parva of the Mahabharata (Parva 5 Chapter 33)

All new appearances had previous existence

Samkhya postulate: The potential to bring about an effect exists in the cause.

When we are aware of something which begins to be, we are by the necessity of our intelligence, constrained to believe that it has a cause. But what does the expression, that it has a cause, signify? If we analyse our thought, we shall find that it simply means, that as we cannot conceive any new existence to commence, therefore, all that now is seen to arise under a new appearance had previously an existence under a prior form. We are utterly unable to realise in thought the possibility of the complement of existence either increased or diminished. We are unable on the one hand, to conceive nothing becoming something
or on the other something becoming nothing. There is thus conceived an absolute tautology between the effect and its causes. We think the causes to contain all that is contained in the effect; the effect to contain nothing which was not contained in the causes.

Sir William Hamilton, Lectures on Metaphysics XXXIX

Scriptures of Sanatana Dharma

This post lists 200+ ancient Sanskrit scriptures of Sanatana Dharma. This list is the tip of an iceberg and is short summary of the primary scriptures.

Sanatana Dharma or Hindu Dharma is based on several sources of knowledge in contrast to some other religions which are based on a single or few books.

Some sources attribute Sanatana Dharma to 80,000 years ago to a time before writing was invented. Sages from ancient times understood the nature and secrets of the universe in their meditative states and transmitted them verbally. This process of a realized sage speaking the truth by oral transmission was Shruti – meaning “of sound”. The spoken word, thus transmitted, had to be committed to memory and subsequently written down with numerous commentaries clarifying the original. This retaining of the transmitted knowledge was Smriti – meaning “of memory”

Sanatana Dharma, the eternal faith, was the way of life of people of Bharat. In the past 3000 or so years, the European and Arab invaders coined the terms India and Hinduism. In the name of religion and conquests, a substantial amount of the knowledge accumulated in the Indian subcontinent over a period of several millenia was destroyed by invaders.

Sanatana Dharma is based on the practice of eternal universal harmony which is encoded into life itself and and has no known single human founder. It arises from the collective wisdom several ancient sages who experienced different elevated states of consciousness and joyously expounded the greater truths about the nature of universe and life that were revealed to them.

Though reading of the scriptures of Sanatana Dharma would not directly lead a person to self-realization, the teachings of the seers provide a basis and a path for spirituality. Despite being the oldest religion, the truth realized by the seers proves that the truth and path provided by Hinduism is beyond time. Hinduism is more a way of life than a religion. Key principles of all religions of the world have similiarities to Hinduism. Many religions like Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism emerged from it and preserve the Hindu knowledge in a different manner.

The values of peace, non violence and compassion emphasized by the Hindu way of life also make it defenseless and vulnerable to destruction. As Hinduism does not have a mechanism of propagation like Christianity and Islam, both of which are well-organized, funded and even violence-oriented, it has been helpless in stopping the destruction of the scriptures and the Sanskrit language.

Given the continuous deterioration of Sanskrit and the knowledge of the ancient eternal scriptures, every Hindu must at least develop an awareness of the scriptures.

Primary texts of Sanatana Dharma include 4 Vedas, 16 Brahmanas, 4 Aranyakas, 108 Upanishads, 6 Vedangas, 5 Upavedas, 18 Mahapuranas, 18 Upapuranas, 6 Darsanas, 18 Smritis and 2 Ithihasas.


The oldest and the most important scriptures of Sanathana Dharma are the Vedas. Veda means knowledge. Vedas are apauruseya, which means they are not attributable to human knowledge. The Vedas are known as the revealed Truths. Vedas are the recordings of the revelations received through transcendental experiences of the Rishis of ancient India. Vedic knowledge is considered to be flawless.

Maharshi Vyasa divided the Vedas into four, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva in order to expand them among men.

  1. Rig-Veda

The Rig-Veda Samhita is the grandest and oldest book of the Hindus. Its immortal mantras embody the greatest truths of existence and its priest is called the Hotri. The Rigveda contains 10,552 verses divided into 64 chapters. Besides that it has got twenty-five branches written by several Rishis. The Rig-veda contains the most sacred Gayatri mantra.

  1. Yajur-Veda

Its name is derived from the root word ‘yaj’ meaning worship. The term for sacrifice i.e. yajna is also derived from here. It primarily deals with the procedural details for performing different yajnas

There are two distinct Yajur Veda Samhitas, the Shukla Yajur Veda or Vajasaneyi Samhita and the Krishna Yajur Veda or Taittireya Samhita. The Krishna or the Taittireya is the older book and the Sukla or the Vajasaneyi is a later revelation to sage Yajnavalkya from the resplendent Sun God. About half of the Yajur-Veda are composed of verses taken from the Rig-Veda. They are arranged according to their importance in various rituals. The remaining part (mainly prose) deals with the formulae for performing the yajna, external as well as internal. The famous Rudra hymns belong to the Krishna Yajur Veda. The Yajur-Veda contains 1875 verses. Besides that it has got one hundred and eight branches.

  1. Sama-Veda

The Sama-Veda Samhita is mostly borrowed from the Rig-vedic Samhita, and is meant to be sung by the Udgatri, the Sama-vedic priest, in sacrifices. ‘Sama’ means peace. Accordingly this Veda contains chants to bring peace to the mind. Many of the hymns of the Rig-Veda are set to musical notes in Sama Veda. Sama Veda is the basis of the seven notes (Sapta Swaras), fundamental to Indian classical music. The listening of the musical chants gives one a sense of universality and a mingling with the divine. The ‘udgaata’ or beginning ceremony before a yajna is actually a chanting of hymns from Sama Veda to ensure the grace of all the Devas. The Sama-Veda contains approximately 2000 verses. Besides that it has got one thousand branches.

  1. Atharva-Veda

This Veda is named after a sage called Atharvan who discovered the mantras contained in it. It is largely a collection spells to ward off evil and suffering and to destroy one’s enemies. It deals more with the things here and now, than the hereafter, and with the sacrifices which are a means to them. The mantras are in prose as well as verse. There also hymns addressed to devas other than the ones mentioned in the other three Vedas. There are hymns, which deal with creation also. Brahma is the representative of Atharva Veda. The Atharva Veda gives a useful insight into the rich landscape of India at the time of its composition. The Atharva Veda contains of 5987 verses. Besides that it has got fifty branches.

Yajur-veda and Sama-veda use the hymns of Rig-Veda and Atharva-Veda and rearrange them in a manner suitable for rituals. In all, the four Vedas have got One thousand one hundred and eighty three (1183) branches.

Each Veda consists of four parts to suit the four stages in a man’s life Brahmacharya, Grihasta, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. The four divisions are Mantra Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.

The Mantra-Samhitas which are hymns in praise of the Vedic God for acquiring material prosperity and happiness. They are poems comprising prayers, hymns and incantations addressed to various deities. This portion also contains information about the creative process, the universal laws, about the creation and the universe in detail. It is useful to Brahmacharins.


The Brahmanas are explanations of Mantras or rituals, which give guidance to people as to how; the sacrificial rites are to be performed. They are explanations of the method of using the Mantras in Yajnas or other rites. Details for various ceremonies like birth, naming, study, marriage, death are in this portion. The Brahmana portion is suitable for householders (Grihastashram).

Brahmanas of Rig-veda
There are three Rig-vedic Brahmanas.

  1. Ithareya Brahmana
  2. Sankhayana Brahmana
  3. Kausheethaki Brahmana

Brahmanas of Yajur-veda
There are three Yajur-vedic Brahmanas.

  1. Shatapadha Brahmana
  2. Thaiththareeya Brahmana
  3. Maithrayaneeya Brahmana

Brahmanas of Sama-veda
There are nine Sama-vedic Brahmanas.

  1. Jaimineeya Brahmana
  2. Thandya Brahmana
  3. Aarsheya Brahmana
  4. Shadvimsadhi Brahmana
  5. Chandhokya Brahmana
  6. Samavidhana Brahmana
  7. Abhootha Brahmana
  8. Vamsa Brahmana
  9. Samhithopanishathi Brahmana

Brahmanas of Atharva-veda

  1. Gopadha Brahmana


The Aranyakas are the forest books, the texts that give philosophical interpretations of the rituals. After a man has finished all his worldly duties (taking care of parents, marrying off children etc.) he proceeds to the forest to spend the rest of his days in solitude and meditation. The Aranyakas are intended for such people, hence the name. It explains the different kinds of rituals to be performed in forest by people, who go for Vanaprastha.

The Aranyakas are expositions on the inner meaning of the Vedic hymns and sacrifices. The hymns are interpreted symbolically to gain an insight into the reasons for performing yajnas and thus deal with higher metaphysical concepts.

Aranyakas of Rig-veda
There are two Rig-vedic Aranyakas.
1 Ithareya Aranyaka
2 Kausheethaki Aranyaka

Aranyakas of Yajur-veda
There are two Yajur-vedic Aranyakas.
1 Maithrayaneeya Aranyaka
2 Thaiththareeya Aranyaka

There are no Aranyakas for Sama and Atharva vedas.


The Upanishads are the essence of Vedic teaching. They are called Vedantas meaning the concluding portion of the Vedas as well as the ultimate conclusions of Vedic wisdom. Upanishads happen to be the most foremost authorities of the Vedanta system of philosophy that developed in later times in different forms.

They reveal the most subtle and deep spiritual truths and are meant for sanyasis. The collection of teachings generated by the ascetics who meditated on the mysteries of human existence came to be known as the Upanishads, which literally means “sitting close to” the teacher thereby indicating that the knowledge that it imparts is esoteric. Many, many Upanishads existed ages ago; a lot of them have been lost in time. Only one hundred and eight have been preserved so far some in prose, some in verse.

They are:

Upanishads of Rig-Veda
There are ten Rig-vedic Upanishads. They are:
1 Ithareya Upanishad
2 Kausheethaki Upanishad
3 Nadhabindhu Upanishad
4 Aathmabhodha Upanishad
5 Nirvana Upanishad
6 Mulgala Upanishad
7 Akshamalika Upanishad
8 Tripura Upanishad
9 Sowbhagyalakshmi Upanishad
10 Bhahvrucha Upanishad

Upanishads of Sukla Yajur-veda
There are eighteen Sukla Yajur-vedic Upanishads. They are:
1 Isovaasya Upanishad
2 Bruhadharanyaka Upanishad
3 Hamsa Upanishad
4 Paramahamsa Upanishad
5 Subhala Upanishad
6 Mantrika Upanishad
7 Thrisikibrahmana Upanishad
8 Niralamba Upanishad
9 Mandalabrahmana Upanishad
10 Adhwya Upanishad
11 Taraka Upanishad
12 Bhikshuka Upanishad
13 Adhyaatma Upanishad
14 Muktika Upanishad
15 Tarashara Upanishad
16 Yanjavalkya Upanishad
17 Shatyayana Upanishad
18 Turiyatheeya Avadhootha Upanishad

Upanishads of Krishna Yajur-veda
There are thirty two Krishna Yajur-vedic Upanishads. They are:
1 Kada Upanishad
2 Thaiththireeya Upanishad
3 Brahma Upanishad
4 Kaivalya Upanishad
5 Swetaswetara Upanishad
6 Garbha Upanishad
7 Mahanarayana Upanishad
8 Amrithabindhu Upanishad
9 Amrithanadha Upanishad
10 Kalagnirudra Upanishad
11 Kshurika Upanishad
12 Sarvasara Upanishad
13 Shukarahasya Upanishad
14 Tejabindhu Upanishad
15 Dhyanabindhu Upanishad
16 Brahmavidhya Upanishad
17 Yogatatva Upanishad
18 Dhakshinamoorthy Upanishad
19 Skanda Upanishad
20 Saareerika Upanishad
21 Yogashika Upanishad
22 Ekakshara Upanishad
23 Akshi Upanishad
24 Avadhootha Upanishad
25 Kadarudra Upanishad
26 Rudrahrudhaya Upanishad
27 Panchabrahma Upanishad
28 Pranagnihotra Upanishad
29 Varaha Upanishad
30 Yogakundalini Upanishad
31 Kalisantarana Upanishad
32 Saraswatheerahasya Upanishad

Upanishads of Sama-veda
There are sixteen Sama-vedic Upanishads. They are:
1 Kena Upanishad
2 Chandokya Upanishad
3 Aaruni Upanishad
4 Maitrayanee Upanishad
5 Maitreyee Upanishad
6 Vajrasuchika Upanishad
7 Yogachoodamani Upanishad
8 Vasudeva Upanishad
9 Maha Upanishad
10 Sanyasa Upanishad
11 Avyakta Upanishad
12 Kundika Upanishad
13 Savitri Upanishad
14 Jabhala Upanishad
15 Darsana Upanishad
16 Rudraksha Jabhala Upanishad

Upanishads of Atharva-veda
There are thirty two Atharva-vedic Upanishads.They are:
1 Prasna Upanishad

  1. Mundaka Upanishad
  2. Maandukya Upanishad
  3. Atharvasira Upanishad
  4. Atharvasikha Upanishad
  5. Bruhat Jaabhala Upanishad
  6. Sita Upanishad
  7. Sarabha Upanishad
  8. Mahanarayana Upanishad
  9. Ramarahasya Upanishad
  10. Ramatapini Upanishad
  11. Sandilya Upanishad
  12. Paramahamsa Upanishad
  13. Annapoorna Upanishad
  14. Surya Upanishad
  15. Aathma Upanishad
  16. Pasuptha Upanishad
  17. Parabrahma Upanishad
  18. Tripuratapini Upanishad
  19. Devi Upanishad
  20. Bhavana Upanishad
  21. Bhasma Jaabhala Upanishad
  22. Ganapati Upanishad
  23. Mahakavya Upanishad
  24. Gopalatapini Upanishad
  25. Sreekrishna Upanishad
  26. Hayagriva Upanishad
  27. Dhaththathreya Upanishad
  28. Garuda Upanishad
  29. Narasimhapurvatapini Upanishad
  30. Naradapariprajaka Upanishad
  31. Narasimha Uththaratapini Upanishad

Besides this 108 Upanishads, many Upa-Upanishads also exist.


The Vedangas and Upavedas are collections of texts that augment and apply the Vedas as a comprehensive system of sacred living. There are six Vedangas.

  1. Siksha (The nose of the Vedas)
    Siksha means Vedic phonetics and lays down the rules of phonetics – sounds of syllables, of pronunciation- euphony. It lays down the parameters of Vedic words. Phonetics are very important in Vedic language because a slight change in sound may lead to change in the meaning of a mantra and consequently have undesirable effects on the sacrifice. Siksha explains how the sound of each syllable should be produced, how high or low should be its pitch and for how much duration (maatra) the sound must last.
  2. Nirukta (The ears of the Vedas)
    Nirukta is the Vedic dictionary. Nirukta may be regarded as the Vedic equivalent of etymology i.e. the study of words. Nirukta explains the origin of each Sanskrit word in the Vedas. In Sanskrit, names or words are not assigned ad-hoc but there is a systematic way of forming words. Every word has a deep meaning and may sometimes be formed by the combination of two or more nouns. All words are derived from the basic roots or Dhatus. As Nirukta breaks each word into its component roots and analyses its meaning, so it is likened to the ear, which distinguishes speech by breaking words into its component phonemes. It is also regarded as the World’s first Encyclopedia.
  3. Vyakarana (The mouth of the Vedas)
    Vyakarana deals with grammar and so is very important. There are many books on Sanskrit grammar, but the most famous and most extensively used is the Vyakarna of Sage Paanini. Paanini’s grammar is in the form of aphorisms (Sutras).
  4. Chanda Saastra (The feet of the Vedas)
    Chanda Saastra deals with metric composition. Any verse has to have a specified ‘metre’ and number of letters in it, for a good fit. Chanda Saastra lays down the rules for this. It defines the boundaries of metrical composition into metre, rhyme, etc.
  5. Kalpa Saastra (The arms of the Vedas)
    Kalpa Saastra is a collection of books of Shauwta Sutra, Dharma Sutra, Pithrumedha Sutra, Sulba Sutra, Gruhya Sutra and Prayaschitham. All our customs and rituals are explained in Kalpa saastra. Kalpa Saastra answers the questions like:
    How should a ritual be performed?
    What are the duties of the child, student, householder, King, mendicant etc?
    Which ritual involves which mantra, which material and which Deva?
    How many priests should be employed for a sacrifice? What objects should be used in various rituals?, and so on.

The Kalpa Saastra details the Vedic rituals to be performed from the time the embryo forms in the womb to birth leading upto the final sacrifice of death. Cremation or Antiyeshti, meaning the last rite is seen as a sacrifice of the whole body to Agni, the fire god. The Namakarana (naming ceremony), the Upanayana (sacred thread investiture ceremony), Vivaaha (marriage) are also described within the Kalpa. The Vedic system of architecture i.e. Vaastu Shastra is also described in Kalpa. The entire Kalpa Saastra weighs more than 250 Kilograms. (i.e., 2.5 quintals)

  1. Jyothisha (Astronomy + Astrology)
    The eyes of the Vedas Jyothisha includes Ganitham, Kalakriya, Golam, Jatakam, Muhurtham, Prasnam and Nimiththam. Perhaps the most famous of all Vedangas, it is the science of astrology. Jyotisha gives rules to calculate the positions of the planets and stars at any instant in the future or past. Based on these positions and certain well defined rules, the fate of a person can be reasonably determined provided his/her birthdate, time and place of birth are accurately known. Vedic astrology is based on lunar signs in direct contrast to the solar sign system prevalent in the west. The premise is that the moon being closer to the Earth extends a greater influence on mankind than the distant Sun.

There are five Upavedas

  1. Arththasaastra
    Unfolds statecraft. It can be called as the Hindu science of governing by Kings.
  2. Dhanur Veda
    Discusses military science. Discusses different kinds of weapons and war rules.
  3. Gandharva Veda
    The science which enlighten music and arts. Discusses different kinds of music, musical instruments and arts.
  4. Ayurveda
    Deals with medicine, health and longevity.
  5. Saapadhyaveda(Tachchu Saastra)
    Deals with the architecture. Vasthu Saastra also comes under this.

Puranas are compiled from related historical facts, which explain the teachings of the four Vedas. The Puranas explain the Vedic truths and are intended for different types of men. All men are not equal. There are men who are good, others who are driven by passion and others who are under the veil of ignorance. The Puranas are so divided that any class of men can take advantage of them and gradually regain their original nature and get out of the hard struggle for existence Mahapuranas.

There are eighteen Mahapuranas. They are:

  1. Vishnu Purana
  2. Bhavishya Purana
  3. Garuda Purana
  4. Agni Purana
  5. Mahabhagavata Purana
  6. Siva Purana
  7. Markandeya Purana
  8. Linga Purana
  9. Brahmavaivarththa Purana
  10. Matsya Purana
  11. Kurma Purana
  12. Varaha Purana
  13. Vamana Purana
  14. Skanda Purana
  15. Brahmaanda Purana
  16. Padma Purana
  17. Vayu Purana
  18. Naradheeya Purana

There are eighteen Upa-puranas. They are:

  1. Samba Purana
  2. Devibhagavata Purana
  3. Kalika Purana
  4. Lakhunaradheeya Purana
  5. Harivamsa Purana
  6. Vishnudharmmoththara Purana
  7. Kalki Purana
  8. Mulgala Purana
  9. Aadhi Purana
  10. Aathma Purana
  11. Brahma Purana
  12. Vishnudharma Purana
  13. Narasimha Purana
  14. Kriyaayoga Purana
  15. Surya Purana
  16. Bruhat Naradheeya Purana
  17. Prushoththama Purana
  18. Bruhat Vishnu Purana


Darsana means, sight or vision. In the Vedanta philosophy, the first question is what is the source of everything? There are philosophers who saw different stages of the original source, and explained philosophy according to their vision. These are known as Darsanas. They are also known as Sad-darsanas (six systems of philosophy).

  1. Nyaya Darsana
    Nyaya means the science of logic and expediency. It is also known as Tarka Shastra. This was composed by Sage Gautama and contains passages, which establish by means of disputation that God is the creator of this universe. It establishes the existence of God by means of inference.
  2. Vaiseshika Darsana
    Vaisesika, philosophy of specialised logic, maintains that the combination of atoms is the cause of the cosmic manifestation. It was composed by Maharshi Kanada. He was the first philosopher who formulated ideas about the atom in a systematic manner.

Nyaya and Vaiseshika deal mainly with physics, chemistry and other material sciences and include reasoning or logic. Metaphysical studies or search for knowledge of God, however, formed the ultimate aim of the study of these saastras also.

  1. Sankhya Darsana
    Sankhya, philosophy of analytical study, maintains that the material nature is the cause of the cosmic manifestation. Sage Kapila composed it.
  2. Yoga Darsana
    Yoga, philosophy of mystic perfections, maintains that universal consciousness is the cause of the cosmic manifestation. It was composed by Patanjali Maharshi. He is the first systematiser of the Yoga school.
  3. Purva Meemamsa Darsana
    Sage Jaimini composed the sutras for the Purvameemamsa, philosophy of actions and reactions, maintains that fruitive activities are the cause of the cosmic manifestation. This book consists of 12 chapters – 1000 Adhikaranas in all. In these Adhikaranas, selected Vedic verses are examined in details. In the 1000 Adhikaranas a thousand types of problems are taken up and various arguments against an apparent explanation are raised before coming to a conclusion.
  4. Uththara Meemamsa Darsana
    The Uththarameemamsa deals with Vedanta and is thus close to the philosophy of the Upanishads. Maharshi Veda Vyasa composed Uththara Meemamsa.


Smriti means memory and are writings devised to fix in memory, the practical use of the messages stated or implied in the Vedas. Smritis embodies the teachings of Divine Incarnations or prophets, saints and sages. It is an explanation of the Srutis. Srutis are the revealed scriptures, as mentioned in the Vedas and Smritis are the commentaries and derived literatures, based on the messages of the Vedas; Some of the Smritis are in the form of Laws formulated by saints and sages for mankind.

There are eighteen important Smritis.They are:

  1. Usana Smriti
  2. Yanjavalkya Smriti
  3. Vishnu Smriti
  4. Manu Smriti
  5. Angeerasa Smriti
  6. Yama Smriti
  7. Atri Smriti
  8. Samvarththa Smriti
  9. Bruhatparasara Smriti
  10. Bruhaspati Smriti
  11. Daksha Smriti
  12. Saataatapa Smriti
  13. Likhita Smriti
  14. Vyasa Smriti
  15. Parasara Smriti
  16. Sanka Smriti
  17. Gautama Smriti
  18. Vasishta Smriti


Itihasas are literatures describing historical events pertaining to either a single hero or a few heroic personalities in a lineage: for example, Ramayana describing the pastimes of Sri Ramachandra and Mahabharata describing the pastimes of the Pandavas in the lineage of the Kurus. In these books there are topics on transcendental subjects along with material topics. The whole idea of the Mahabharata culminates in the ultimate instructions of the Bhagavad-gita that one should give up all other engagements and should engage oneself solely and fully in surrendering unto the lotus feet of Krishna. The conclusive teaching of the Ramayana also is to fully surrender and take shelter of Lord Sri Ramachandra.

  1. Ramayana The traditional author of this Epic is the sage Valmiki. This Epic is regarded as the first poetical work in the world, of purely human origin. The verses have great diffusivity, simplicity and charm. There are totally seven books of this great epic.
  2. Mahabharata This epic is traditionally authored by the sage Vyasa It is a rich collection of many histories and legends. The scene of the poem is the ancient kingdom of the Kurus; and the central story – ‘ the germ of which is to be found in the Vedas ‘ – concerns a great dynastic war. A very important portion of the Mahabharata is the Song of the God (called the Gita). Bhagavad Gita, as it is called, is the essence of all the messages to mankind contained in the Veda.

Hindus believe in one God expressed in different forms. For them, God is timeless and formless entity. Hindus believe in eternal truths and these truths are opened to anyone who seeks them, even if he or she is ignorant of Hindu scriptures or ideas. This religion also professes Non-violence – “Ahimsa Paramo Dharma” – Non violence is the highest duty. True Ahimsa implies curtsey, kindness, hospitality, humanity and love. The most important aspect of Hinduism is being truthful to one’s own consciousness. Hinduism does not claim to have a monopoly on ideas and is open to all.

This post is based on document prepared in 2003 by A.V. Ajil Kumar with inputs from Dr.N.Gopala Krishnan, Scientist, CSIR & Hon Director, Indian Institute of Scientific Heritage, Trivandrum.

Notes on tanmatras

Meaning: The term comes from the Sanskrit, tan, meaning “subtle”; and matra, meaning “elements.” They are 5 in number and are called panchatanmatra.

Another translation of tanmatra is “mother of matter,” meaning that the pancha tanmatra represents the mother energy of the world. The pancha tanmatra comprise the information through which we sense or experience the external world.

Pancha tanmatra are the five perceptions or subtle elements that are the objects of the five senses. The pancha tanmatra are: rupa (form and color), gandha (smell), sparsa (touch), rasa (taste) and sabda (sound).

Irrespective of how many types and forms of material exists in the world, the human body has only 5 senses. Because our knowledge of the world is established based on these 5 senses, at least five basic elements are needed to explain this experience.

The tanmatras are related to the five cognitive sense organs called pancha jnanendriyacaksu (eyes), ghrana (nose), tvak (skin), rasana (tongue) and srotra (ear).

Both the pancha tanmatra and the jnanendriya are among the 36 tattvas, or aspects of nature, in Saivism.

According to the Vedic theory of creation, the tanmatras are the basis of all corporeal existences because from them evolve the Bhutas, the building blocks of the perceptible universe.

The pancha tanmatra also combine to produce the gross elements that comprise the universe:

  • Prithvi: Sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa, gandha
  • Jala: Sabda, sparsa, rupa and rasa
  • Agni: Sabda, sparsa, and rupa
  • Vayu: Sabda and sparsa
  • Akash: Sabda

Reproduction from “Principles of Ayurvedic Medicine,” by Dr. Marc Halpern

“The first building block is actually the “potential” for a building block. These potentials are called tanmatras. They provide the potential for all existence. Tanmatra means “essence” or “potential.” These are the root energies of the five elements. They are the most subtle form of energy and it is only because of the tanmatras that everything comes into creation. This includes the mind, senses, and organs of action. Although the tanmatras are named after their related sensory experiences, their influence is not limited to the senses. 

Being so subtle, the tanmatras are difficult to understand at first. Tanmatras are the most subtle form of energy, the root energies of the five elements. They provide the potential for all existence. The following information helps to round out the student’s understanding of the tanmatras. Refer to the section on Sankhya Philosophy for additional information. The following description brings in concepts that are described later in the text. Interested students are encouraged to come back and read this appendix only after reading the rest of the textbook. 

The origin of the ether element is the tanmatra of sound called shabda. Shabda tanmatra is the primordial, unmanifested form of sound. Shabda is the primordial space from which vibration emerges long before it takes the form of sound in the ear. Sound and ether are inseparable. Because of their intimate relationship, the ear is considered the associated sense organ of the ether element, and voice (mouth) is its organ of action. Hearing loss and loss of the voice are difficulties that are often due to vitiation of the ether element in the body. 

The origin of the air element is the tanmatra of touch called sparsha. Sparsha tanmatra is the primordial, unmanifested form of touch. Sparsha is the potential of the touch experience, expressed in its most subtle form. Touch and air are inseparable. Because of their intimate relationship, the skin (through which we receive touch) is considered the associated sense organ of the air element and the hands (through which we reach out and touch the world) are its associated organs of action. Hence, disorders of tactile perception and those of grasping are the result of disturbances in the functions of the air element. 

The origin of the fire element is the tanmatra of vision called rupa. Rupa means form or color. Both form and color are the result of perception. Rupa tanmatra is the primordial, unmanifested form of perception, light, vision and, thus, the fire element. Fire and the visual sense have a special relationship. Fire provides the light for perception. The eyes are the vehicles through which light is digested and perception takes place. Hence, disorders of visual perception are primarily those of the fire element. 

The origin of the water element is the tanmatra of taste called rasa. Rasa in this context is the primordial causation of the experience of taste. Rasa tanmatra is the causal energy that provides the potential for the experience of taste to occur. It is not the taste itself. However, since taste depends upon the water element for its manifestation, disorders of the ability to taste are due to an imbalance of the water element. 

The origin of the earth element is the tanmatra of smell called gandha. The state of the earth element in the body and the capacity to smell are deeply connected. Gandha tanmatra is the primordial cause of the experience of smell. It is the seed energy or potential, emerging from the causal body, which sprouts into the earth element. The earth element then builds the potential for the experience of smell in the subtle body and the structures through which smell can be experienced in the physical body. Thus, the gandha tanmatra is not the smell itself but smell is dependent upon it. Disorders of the ability to smell reflect an imbalance of the earth element.” 

1. Number of tanmatras is equal to the number of sense organs
2. Each human sense organ is powered by a tanmatra
3. The tanmatras create the panchabhutas. Panchabhutas create the world.
4. If one tanmatra, say rupa (form and color) is taken out, then the indirya called chaksu (eye) cannot function. Also, the elements such as agni, jala and prithvi will lose their ability to be seen.
5. The sharpest eye cannot create vision if light did not exist. The brightest light cannot create vision if the eye did not exist. Even together, the light and the eye cannot create vision, if the ability to see did not exist.
6. The tanmatra is the subtle element that ties the sense organ called the eye, to its ability to see and to the external reality of color.
7. The tanmatra is the binding rope that creates the ability to experience this universe by creating a triad of (a) The sense organ (b) Ability of the sense organ to function and (c) An aspect of external reality that can be sensed by the organ. It is by endless Mercy that a lifeform is blessed with all the three.

Notes on ahamkara

1. Drig Drishya Viveka
2. Shaiva Siddhantha
3. Swami Sarvapriyananda
4. Samkhya

Alternate terms: Ahankara, ahankar
English translation: Ego, Identity, Awareness, I-ness,

Meaning: (Ahamkara= I am the cause, I am the doer)
Ahamkara is a Sanskrit word that describes the ego, the image a person has of him/herself or the conscious mind as he/she perceives it. The term comes from the root, aham, which translates as “I am”; and kara, which means “doing” or “making.”

Purpose: The purpose of ahamkara is to create self-awareness. It is only by this self-awareness, a life form develops the ability to differentiate itself from the world around it and take ownership of objects as mine and not mine.

Position: Ahamkara is one of the four aspects of antahkarana, or the “inner organ”. In addition to ahankara, antahkarana includes buddhi , chitta and manas. The anthakarana are a part of the subtle body and exist in impure maya.

Working: The atman/soul is a source of pure consciousness. Ahamkara reflects the consciousness of the soul in its most true form to create a true reflection of the soul and thus create an identity. This reflection is not like the moon reflecting the sunlight but more like a dewdrop reflecting the sun. Moon’s reflection of sunlight does not reflect the sun truly and creates the illusion as if moon is also a source of light. But the dewdrop’s reflection of the sun is a miniature version of the sun itself. Like a red hot iron ball has both the attributes of iron as well as heat, this image of the atman created on anthakarana has attributes of both consciousness of the atman and the inertness of impure maya.

Role: The pure consciousness of the soul, is reflected and transmitted to ahamkara, is further transmitted to the other anthakaranas, sense organs and body so that the whole body till the tip of fingernails is illumined with consciousness.

This process of consciousness transmitting from the soul to ahankara to anthakarana to body organs is similar to heat flowing from fire to vessel to water to vegetable.

Inference only – not from text:
This consciousness that is imparted to anthakarana and the body is called “reflected consciousness” because:
1. It is an unclear indication of the source consciousness (like moon reflects the sun)
2. It is different from pure consciousness due to its association with impure maya of the anthakarana and the body.

1. Connection of ahankara with other anthakaranas is natural (sahaja) and cannot be broken
2. Connection of ahankara with the body has its roots in the karma (karmajam) carried by the subtle body and will be broken only by resolving the karma
3. Connection of ahankara with the atman is false (bhranthijam). By breaking this connection, the soul is liberated by staying rooted in pure consciousness.

Notes on consciousness

  1. If there are three observers at 0 c, 0.5 c and 0.9999 c, their observations of the universe would be different. This is relativity. If observers see the same universe differently, then how can the universe be said to have a single nature?
  2. If a universe cannot have a single nature that it can present consistently to all observers, then there can be no unified theory of everything. If there is nothing fixed to refer to, then there is no standing ground for a theory. To arrive at the theory of everything, experience of constant existence at all frame of reference would be necessary. Interpretation of an observer at 0 c of the experience at 0.5 c, may not necessarily be true for the observer at 0.5 c.
  3. Thought experiment: Can relativity be applied on to quantum fields? If the large hadron collider is moving is at 0.9999 c with respect to the observer, would the experimental results still be valid?
  4. There are two different states of unconsciousness:
    • Death state of unconsciousness: Atman/Soul has left the body and reengagement with mind/body is not expected. Person is truly dead and appears so.
    • Pre-death state of unconsciousness: Atma/Soul has not left the body and reengagement with mind/body is possible. Person appears dead or in a coma to the world but is not truly dead.
  5. In between the two states of unconsciousness, pre-death and death, exists the clue to understand the bare essential functioning of the soul/atman. In this free state, the soul remains closer to its pure form, without having the need to engage the constructs of mind or the sense organs or the world outside or the need to look for a different body to live-in next.
  6. Like a person is standing at the door step of the house from where he can go inwards or outwards, the soul is free to engage the mind in the subtle body and go inwards into a given body and its experience or abandon the current body and seek another body more suited to the current evolved needs of the subtle body. If the current needs are zero, there should be no need for another body.
  7. When the soul decides to “go inside the house” by engaging the mind and the current body, the rules for extent of such engagement must be set. The sages (gyani) who study the soul (not so much the world) say that this engagement must be limited for it doesn’t matter how big the house and how deep one goes into it, the exit must happen. The scientists (vigyani) who study the world (not so much the soul) say this engagement must be maximum, for this one freak opportunity to learn the world should not be wasted. The sage says do not engage, for engagement creates karma and births. The scientist says engage with all your might or else your only go at life would be wasted.
  8. The scientists says, the universe is eternal but consciousness comes and goes. The sage says, consciousness is eternal and the universe comes and goes.

So, what are you? Are you a blip of consciousness that will be forever extinguished at death? Or are you eternal consciousness that will repeatedly come and go into the playground of universe till you learn to destroy your ego and burn your karma?

What is your world view? A fixed universe with random meaningless blips of consciousness and life forms? Or an eternal consciousness soul that craves for varying experiences in a semi-real universe?

Comparing scientific and Vedic thoughts

Science, 20 centuries after ChristVedas and Darshanas, many centuries before Christ
The universe we observe constitutes reality. Nature of universe must be established by experiments.The universe is an appearance. Don’t bother with it.
Brain is the organ for producing consciousness and mind. Intelligence can be artificial.Soul (Brahman) is the reality. Consciousness is its trait. Mind, intelligence and brain are its toys.
At the time of death mind and consciousness disappear. Life is finished.Soul is eternal. Its lives will not be finished until its own karma is resolved.
Universe was produced from a big-bang. Everything came from nothing.
Universe was created by an intelligent infinite energy to be used as a playground for souls to act till they realize the futility of their actions and return to God.
Life comes from a chemical soup. Chicken comes from setting the right temperature on an incubator.Life happens so as to improve the soul progressively. A chick will be born and be dead according to its own karma.
Reality is understood by looking outside at everything from the sub atomic particles to galaxies.Reality is understood by looking inside at the soul.
We can use the Higgs field to search for dark energy, dark matter, supersymmetry, extra dimensions and multiverses.Nature of maya is such that if you chase anything that exists, you will learn that it is does not.
String theory of 13 dimensions with 10^500 possibilities of compactification may present a unified theory of everything.This universe is God’s play. (Dice, Mr. Einstein?)
Science can help human activity, colonizing other planets and win wars to establish world order.All universe is eternally under divine order. Live with the universe without affecting it.
For science, the starting point of the study is the world around us. It attempts to observe, understand, theorize and verify reality with experiments. There is still much to be known.In the Vedas, the starting point for study is the unverifiable soul (Brahman). The entire universe is an expression of the unmanifest energy. If one understands the nature of the soul, there is nothing else to be known.

For many years, I have felt that science is a natural extension of the Hindu religion. Not understanding the universe, or not knowing the physical reality has never been a cause of concern because this material universe is considered to be maya and a veil that hides reality. Study of science is the study of the veil. No matter how intricate, it needs to be put away so that the light of the eternal truth can shine.

When studying digestion, it is almost natural progression to understand the need to eat first, the food next, the digestion later and the examination of the fecal matter as the last step. Similarly, studying the Vedic thought first and the scientific thought later provides a natural advantage that the learner will be able to assign the right perspective to science.

Science questions

  1. If the Higgs is an infinite field with a local value of 246 GeV, where does this infinite energy come from?
  2. Why is the infinite energy of Higgs field necessary to create the smallest possible mass and for things to “simply exist”?
  3. Why does the Higgs field interact differently with different particles with masses?
  4. Where does the mass of neutrinos come from?
  5. How many fields exist in empty space?
  6. As two gluons can occupy the same space, why should they “interact” to create a Higgs Boson?
  7. How do we see colors in our dreams when our eyelids are closed and no light enters past them? If vision can happen without the eye or light, why should we correlate reality what is observable?
  8. How do we hear speech in our dreams when we sleep in a room with pin drop silence?
  9. How do we explain consciousness, out-of-body experiences, near death experiences, premonition?
  10. Explanations of dark matter, dark energy and why they predominate the known universe
  11. Can supersymmetry be proved?
  12. What type of experiments will need to be designed to prove matter is made of strings?
  13. What kind of computing power is needed to solve 13 dimensional string theory problems with possible 10^500 compactifications?
  14. What are the correct values for vacuum energy?

Fields and reality

The world is really made out of fields. Sometimes the stuff of the universe looks like particles, due to the peculiarities of quantum mechanics, but deep down it’s really fields. Empty space isn’t as empty as it looks. At every point there is a rich collection of fields, each taking on some value or another—or more precisely, due to the uncertainty that accompanies quantum mechanics, a distribution of possible values we could potentially observe.

The fields themselves aren’t “made of” anything—fields are what the world is made of. We don’t know of any lower level of reality. (Maybe string theory, but that’s still hypothetical.) Magnetism is carried by a field, as are gravity and the nuclear forces. Even what we call “matter”—particles like electrons and protons—is really just a set of vibrating fields. The particle we call the “Higgs boson” is important, but not so much for its own sake; what matters is the Higgs field from which it springs, which plays a central role in how our universe works. Astounding indeed.

Sean Carroll, The particle at the end of the universe

Don’t look: waves. Look: particles.

The physicist John Wheeler once proposed a challenge: How can you best explain quantum mechanics in five words or fewer? In the modern world, it’s easy to get suggestions for any short-answer question: Simply ask Twitter, the microblogging service that limits posts to 140 characters. When I posed the question about quantum mechanics, the best answer was given by Aatish Bhatia (@ aatishb): “Don’t look: waves. Look: particles.” That’s quantum mechanics in a nutshell.

Sean Carroll, The particle at the end of the universe

Notes on Satkaryavada

  • Sat-karya-vada: The argument of eternal action
  • Source: Samkhya Sutras of Kapila
  • Satkāryavāda (सत्कार्यवाद, “form”) refers to the Sāṃkhya’s concept of causation.—Satkāryavāda (the doctrine that the effect pre-exists in its cause), presents the three fundamental qualities (i.e. triguṇa) as the grounds for an argument by asserting that the diversity of the phenomenal world is also nothing but the transformation of the three qualities according to the relative superiority or inferiority among their forces. In this case, an aspect of superiority or inferiority among the three qualities is expressed in the concept of saṃsthāna.
  • If something exists, it exists because of preexisting potentiality. Even if this potentiality is beyond grasp, it is considered to exist in an unmanifest state before it becomes manifest at the right time.
  • Only nothing comes from nothing
  • Something cannot be created from nothing
  • The effect (manifest) is immanent in the cause (unmanifest) and emerges from it.
  • Prakriti (manifest) in Sāñkhya philosophy is the feminine energy of the Purusha (Unmanifest). She is fully capable of producing everything, but She produces it based on purusha’s will. The prakriti is not inert, or unconscious; She rather has a subordinate will.
  • What is not meant to be, will never be – like ungrown horns on a man which will never become a reality.
  • Things cannot arise haphazardly, things can only be produced by what is capable of producing them.
  • Because the making is possible [only] of what [the cause] is capable of
  • Whatever happens, happens according to a rule.
  • Everywhere, always, everything is possible. (Samkhya Sutra 1.116)
  • User (purusha) and instrument (prakriti) are powerful to contain the causes and effects in themselves.
  • Desire causes creation

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (samkhya)
Satkāryavāda (सत्कार्यवाद) refers to one of the philosophical systems regarding the cause and effect relation prevalent in Ancient India.—Satkāryavāda is upheld by the Sāṃkhya-Yoga and Advaita Vedānta philosophers. According to Satkāryavāda the effect already exists in the cause in a potential condition. So, it is not basically new creation and different from the material cause. But effect is only an explicit manifestation of that which are contained in its material cause. For example, a pot is not different from the clay, a cloth is not different from the threads.

There are two divisions of Satkāryavāda—a) Pariṇāmavāda and b) Vivartavāda.
Pariṇāmavāda: Effect is a real transformation of its cause.
Vivartavāda: Effect is unreal

Sāṃkhya-Yoga’s view is known as Prakṛti-Pariṇāmavāda, Rāmānuja’s view is known as Brahma-Pariṇāmavāda, Śaṃkara is Vivartavādin.

It is the Sāṃkhyas who have actually established the theory satkāryavāda by different arguments. Īśvaṛakṛṣṇa has discussed the theory of satkāryavāda in his Sāṃkhyakārikā. He gives five arguments to prove this theory. The five arguments are discussed here as follows:

  • asadakaranād
  • upādāna-grahaṇāt
  • sarvasambhavābhāvāt
  • śaktasya-śakyakaraṇāt
  • kāraṇabhāvāt

Notes on “I think, therefore I am”

Original statement: The phrase originally appeared in French as je pense, donc je suis in Discourse on the Method by René Descartes.

Latin translation: Cogito, ergo sum. It appeared in Latin in his later Principles of Philosophy

From Wikipedia: Later translated into English as “I think, therefore I am” , so as to reach a wider audience than Latin would have allowed.

As Descartes explained it, “we cannot doubt of our existence while we doubt.”

A fuller version, articulated by Antoine Léonard Thomas, aptly captures Descartes’s intent: dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum (“I doubt, therefore I think, therefore I am”)

Descartes’s statement became a fundamental element of Western philosophy, as it purported to provide a certain foundation for knowledge in the face of radical doubt. While other knowledge could be a figment of imagination, deception, or mistake, Descartes asserted that the very act of doubting one’s own existence served—at minimum—as proof of the reality of one’s own mind; there must be a thinking entity—in this case the self—for there to be a thought.

One common critique of the dictum is that it presupposes that there is an “I” which must be doing the thinking. According to this line of criticism, the most that Descartes was entitled to say was that “thinking is occurring”, not that “I am thinking”.

View 1:
Essentially, thought cannot end up being the sole provable thing in existence since it has requirements for its own existence.

View 2:
St. Augustine was one of the early proponents of similar thinking. Parmenides 5th Century BC also said something similar.

View 3:
Saiva Siddhantha identifies mind and thoughts as perishing with the body and hence these cannot be associated with the identity of I. The soul is believed to be more subtle than the mind. While energies associated with mental activity can be measured, the soul itself cannot be traced by outside methods.

Notes on potentiality and actuality


  • What can be
  • Potential, Potency, Possibility, Capability, Dunamis (Greek) etc. – but there is an uncertainty if it will ever become actuality.
  • Noumenon
  • Unmanifest, hidden
  • Before the experience
  • In his philosophy, Aristotle distinguished two meanings of dunamis (Possibility). According to his understanding of nature there were:
    • Weak sense of potential (“Chance to happen or not to happen”, “Do something mindlessly”, “Natures that do not persist”, “Things happen by chance”)
    • Strong sense of potential (“Preference to make it happen”, “How something could be done well”, “Things that are stable”, “Strong tendency to happen”)


  • What is
  • Currently happening, Reality
  • Phenomenon
  • Manifest, visible
  • At the time of experience
  • Actuality is often used to translate both energeia (ενέργεια) and entelecheia (ἐντελέχεια) (sometimes rendered in English as “entelechy”)
    • Energia: Being at work, “is at work”ness (eg: Pleasure, happiness, kinesis)
    • Entelechy: being-at-an-end, the realization of potential, whatever happens to be the case right now leading to final reality

Everything exists in a state of potentiality ready to spring forth into a state of actuality. But what converts the potentiality into actuality?

We cannot know the unmanifest potentiality. Even though the manifest actuality arises from the unmanifest potentiality, it only represents only a single possibility that materialized into reality. By studying the actuality post facto, we can learn of one potential that actually materialized. However, there could be multiple potentials that cannot be inferred as they are not yet manifest. Inability to know the unmanifest can be mitigated to some extent by learning from the manifest. However, a complete grasp of unmanifest potential is not possible.

From Ashish Dalela:
This idea is very unintuitive in Western philosophy where “reality” is that which exists independent and outside of our experience, and our experience is a phenomena, not reality. Therefore, we never call the phenomena a reality in Western philosophy because we think that reality exists materially and objectively outside my mind. However, if you extend this idea to its logical limit, then reality must also be outside God’s mind—i.e. exist even prior to God’s experience. How can then God be the origin of reality if this reality is outside God’s experience, and He only becomes aware of this reality? Atheism thus follows naturally from the idea that there is some reality outside the observer.

Hell is Other People

Possible meanings for the phrase “Hell is Other People”

“Hell Is Other People”

Author: Jean Paul Sartre
Novel: No Exit

Common interpretation:
The quote has been hailed as the slogan for introverts and a way to explain any dissatisfaction we encounter with family members, strangers on public transport and our time-stealing co-workers.

However, it cannot be literally true that other people are hellish. Alternate explanations exist based on the context of the novel which has three characters trapped in a room together. Each character wants to escape the watchful gaze of the others. But none can escape because because they’re dead and the room is hell.

Thus, being unable to escape from the gaze of other people who can potentially judge you and assign tags can be a hellish experience.

Alternate Explanation 1:

Without others, I was someone free.
When someone comes along, the new person restricts me with their own idea of what I am.

Alternate Explanation 2:

Once we die, we’re permanently trapped in other people’s interpretations of us.
See also: “Death makes angels of us”

When we are alive we can still do somethings to fix. But once we’re dead, we can no longer speak for our actions.
See also: “History is written by victors”

Aim for the larger good

त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् ।
ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे ह्यात्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ॥

tyajedekaṃ kulasyārthe grāmasyārthe kulaṃ tyajet ।
grāmaṃ janapadasyārthe hyātmārthe pṛthivīṃ tyajet ॥

Give up one person for the sake of the lineage;
For the sake of a village, a lineage can be given up.
Give up a village for the benefit of the region;
For the sake of the soul, give up the pleasures of the earth.

Three different sources are listed for this quote:
Maha Bharata Adi. 115. 36 ; Sabha. 61. 11
Hitopadeśa, Mitralābha
Chanakya Neeti, Neeti 3 Rule 10