Shiva, Ganga and third eye

Ganga, the holiest of the holy rivers, flows from the matted hair of Shiva. Shiva allowed an outlet to the great river to traverse the earth and bring purifying water to human beings. The flowing water is one of the five elements, which compose the whole Universe and from which earth arises. The origin of the Ganga from the head of Lord Shiva seems to be related to the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) arising from the ventricles flowing in the direction of gravity towards the spinal column. Ganga circulates in the matted hairs of Lord Siva and then flows to the earth and finally drains to the great ocean . In the same way as CSF circulates into the ventricle and finally drains into the venous sinuses. As CSF preserves the normal homeostasis of the structure of the brain so as Ganga preserves the normal environmental balance of the earth around it. We presumed that that representation of the flow of CSF in the literature of ancient Hinduism shows their knowledge about brain and the dynamics of CSF. Moreover, the flowing nature of holy Ganga represents continuous formation of CSF by the brain.

The third eye of Shiva on his forehead is the eye of wisdom. It is the eye that looks beyond the obvious. The third eye of Shiva is also popularly associated with its untamed energy, which destroys the evil doers and sins. He governs time, i.e., the day and night cycle. The pineal body of brain is also termed as the third eye and is associated with the circadian rhythm of the body. 

R. Kumar, Devendrakumar Gupta in “Shiva: supreme God of all in Saivism”

What is the mass of the universe?

Nobody knows the size of the universe, as only a portion of it is observable. If the universe happens to have an infinitely large size, then its mass could also be infinite.

It is only the mass of the observable universe that can be in the purview of scientific enquiry.

What is of interest to physicists is the density of matter in the universe, as it is important in determining the fate of the universe: whether it will collapse one day or whether it will continue expanding forever.

The density of matter in the universe can be estimated by various means such as by studying the fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background, superclusters, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, etc.

According to these estimates, the density of matter in the universe is about 3 x 10^(-30) g/cc. By comparing with the density of atmospheric air of ~1.23 g/cc, it becomes clear that the density of space is very close to that of vacuum.

Again, this density includes the contribution of dark matter. The density of luminous matter that we see as stars and galaxies is only about one-tenth of the figure given above.

The size of the observable universe is ~ 14 billion light years.

Using the above value of density gives a mass of about 3 x 10^55 g, which is roughly 25 billion galaxies the size of the Milky Way.

No body knows what lies beyond the 25 billion galaxies and how it could impact the mass and density calculations.